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buy alpha pvp crystal a synthetic cathinone derivative and commonly referred to as a new psychoactive substance (NPS), ‘research chemical’, ‘bath salt’ or ‘designer drug’. α-PVP appears to act as a potent blocker at the dopamine and norepinephrine transporter and pre-clinical research into areas
of abuse liability, psychomotor activity and drug discrimination suggests that the properties of αPVP are reminiscent of MDPV, methamphetamine and cocaine.

α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (also known as α pyrrolidinovalerophenoneα-PVPO-2387β-keto prolintaneprolintanone, or desmethylpyrovalerone) is a synthetic stimulant of the cathinone class developed in the 1960s that has been sold as a designer drug. Colloquially, it is sometimes called flakka.


    • Product Name:Alpha-PVP
    • IUPAC Name:α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone
    • Other Names:c, O-2387, Alpha-PVP, a-pvp
    • Cas Number:14530-33-7
    • Molecular Formula:C15H21NO
    • Molar Mass:231,33 g/mol
    • Effect:stimulant, euphoria
    • Purity of the substance:99.9%
    • Physical properties:Large Crystals

Substance identification

    • International Nonproprietary Name (INN)
      • Not applicable.
    • Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number
      • 14530-33-7 (free base)
      • 5485-65-4 (hydrochloride salt)
      • 14859-27-9 (tartrate salt)
      • 14859-28-0 (maleate salt)
      • 14995-79-0 (citrate salt)
      • 100175-06-2 (hydrogen maleate salt)
      • 16121-74-7 (sulfate salt)
      • 13415-49-1 (sulfate salt, 1:1)
      • 1346599-00-5 (d8-free base)
      • 1781744-06-6 (d8-hydrochloride salt)
    • Other Names
      • α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone,
      • α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone,
      • α-PVP,
      • alpha-PVP,
      • desmethyl pyrovalerone,
      • prolintanone,
      • β-keto-prolintane,
      • pyrodilyl ketone,
      • αpyrrolidino ketone,
      • 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-valerophenone,
      • 2-pyrrolidinovalerophenone,
      • 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-valerophenone,
      • 2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)phenylpentan-1-one,
      • 2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-1-phenylpentan-1-one, O-2387.
    • Street Names
      • Street names encountered in European Member States and reported to the European
        Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)1
        include ‘grind’,
        ‘flakka’, ‘gravel’, ‘crystal love’, ‘Pure NRG’, ‘Snow Blow’ and ‘vanilla sky’.
        Prominent street names encountered in the United States of America include
        ‘flakka’ and ‘gravel’. Product names reported to contain α-PVP include ‘Yayo soft’,
        ‘Yayo experimental’ and ‘1NRG’ (Belgium); ‘Ocean Breath’ (Cyprus); ‘Guarana
        Coco jumbo’, ‘Cherry Coco jumbo’, ‘ILOVEPARADE’ and ‘SENSATION’
        (Czech Republic); ‘NRG3’, ‘Energy 3’ and ‘PV-11’ (France); ‘Pure NRG’
        (Germany); ‘A-1 PUP’ (Italy); ‘E21’, ‘G-Y’, ‘S1 Turbo’ and ‘GIE-ES M’ (Poland);
        ‘Sextacy’, ‘Bloom’, ‘Quick Silver’, ‘Formula 3’, ‘Ivory’ and ‘Vanila Sky’
        (Portugal); ‘Doves’, ‘Fire Ball’, ‘Green Speed’, ’Knock out’, ‘Max’, ‘Speedway’,
        ‘Total speed’ and ‘Ultra Violet Exclusive’ (Slovakia); and ‘NRG-3’, ‘Energy – 3
        (NRG-3)’ and ‘Spellweaver’ (United Kingdom).

Methods of manufacturing:

One of the main procedures used for α-PVP synthesis includes the α-halogenation (e.g. using bromine) (step i) of the 1-phenylpentan-1-one (valerophenone) precursor (a) and formation of the 2-bromo-1-phenylpentan-1-one (b). Reaction with pyrrolidine (step ii) gives α-PVP (c) that can then be converted into a range of salts.

Valerophenone (a) may also been obtained from a number of precursors including benzene or benzaldehyde. One of several alternatives may include the oxidation of the ephedrine-type 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-ol precursor or reaction of 2-bromo-1-phenylpentan-1-one with alkoxide reagents to yield epoxide intermediates that can then be reacted with pyrrolidine.8, 10, 11A Grignard reaction between phenylmagnesium halide with 2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentanamide has also been suggested.

Chemical description

α-PVP is the desmethyl analogue of pyrovalerone, which is listed in Schedule IV of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. A closely related derivative of α-PVP is 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, MDPV), a cathinone derivative that was subject to a critical review during the thirty-sixth meeting of the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence in 2014. The Committee recommended that MDPV be placed in Schedule II of the 1971 Convention.

Chemical properties

α-PVP hydrochloride is a white, crystalline powder. Its solubility was given as ~10 mg/mL in PBS (pH 7.2); ~20 mg/mL in EtOH; ~10 mg/mL in DMSO and ~3 mg/mL in DMF, respectively.

Chemical identification

The first thermal properties have been described in the early 1960s . The
first NMR data have been published in 2005 and 2006, which followed a systematic investigation of pyrovalerone analogues that included the evaluation of monoamine transporter activities.

Although α-PVP was reported to have been encountered in a German seizure in 2005, mass spectral data derived from metabolism studies were only published in 2009. Implementation of the Marquis test was reported to
result in a ‘clear’ reaction whereas formation of a ‘gray/black’ result was obtained from the Mecke test.

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